Activities using large muscle groups at moderate
intensities that permit the body to use oxygen to supply energy to
maintain a steady state for more than a few minutes. See steady state.
The ability to continue anaerobic activity over
a period of time.
See maximal oxygen uptake.
A muscle which directly engages in an action
around a joint which has another muscle that can provide an opposing
Not using oxygen.
Activities using muscle groups at high
intensities that exceed the bodyís capacity to use oxygen to supply
energy and create and oxygen debt by using energy produced without oxygen.
The ability to continue anaerobic activity over
a period of time (much shorter time than with aerobic activity).
The point where increasing energy demands of exercise cannot be met by the
use of oxygen, and an oxygen debt begins to be incurred.
A muscle that can provide an opposing action to
the action of another muscle (the agonist) around a joint.
Reduction in size, or wasting away, of a body part, organ, tissue or cell.
An exercise movement in which a part of the body
is "thrown" against the resistance of antagonist muscles or
against the limits of a joint. The latter, especially, is considered
dangerous to the integrity of ligaments and tendons.
Pertaining to the heart and blood vessels.
A series of exercises, performed one after the other, with little rest
between. Resistance training in this manner increases strength while
making some contribution to cardiovascular endurance as well. (It remains
controversial as to whether a significant cardiovascular benefit will be
achieved in the absence of very consistent motivation or close supervision
of the sessions.)
Muscle action in which the muscle is shortening under its own power. This
action is commonly called "positive" work, or, redundantly,
A gradual reduction of the intensity of exercise
to allow physiological processes to return to normal. Helps avoid blood
pooling in the legs and may reduce muscular soreness.
The condition resulting from the excessive loss
of body water.
The time spent in a single exercise session.
Duration, along with frequency and intensity, are factors affection the
effectiveness of exercise.
Muscle action in which the muscle resists while
it is forced to lengthen. This action is commonly called
"negative" work, or "eccentric contraction," but,
since the muscle is lengthening, the word "contraction" is
The capacity to continue a physical performance
over a period of time.
The capacity to produce work.
Physical exertion of sufficient intensity, duration and frequency to
achieve or maintain fitness, or other health or athletic objectives.
A recommendation for a course of exercise to
meet desirable individual objectives for fitness. Includes activity types;
duration, intensity, and frequency of exercise.
Breathing air out of the lungs.
A movement which moves the two ends of a jointed
body part away from each other, as in strengthening of the arm.
A muscle that extends a jointed body part.
Muscle fiber type that contracts quickly and is
used most in intensive, short-duration exercised, such as weightlifting or
A loss of power to continue a given level of
The state of well-being consisting of optimum
levels of strength, flexibility, weight control, cardiovascular capacity
and positive physical and mental health behaviors, that prepare a person
to participate fully in life, to be free from controllable health-risk
factors and to achieve physical objectives consistent with his/her
Measuring the indicators of the various aspects of fitness.
The range of motion around a joint.
A movement which moves the two ends of a jointed
body part closer to each other, as in bending the arm.
How often a person repeats a complete exercise
The group of muscles at the back of the thigh,
and their tendons.
Number of heartbeats per minute.
Muscle twitching or painful cramping, usually
following heavy exercise with profuse sweating. The legs, arms and
abdominal muscles are the often affected.
Caused by dehydration (and sometimes salt loss). Symptoms include a
dry mouth, excessive thirst, loss of coordination, dizziness, headache,
paleness, shakiness and cool and clammy skin.
A life-threatening illness when the bodyís
temperature-regulating mechanisms fail. Body temperature may rise to over
104 degrees F. skin appears red, dry and warm to the touch. The victim has
chills, sometimes nausea and dizziness, and may be confused or irrational.
Seizures and coma may follow unless temperature is brought down to 102
degrees within an hour.
The upper, wide portion of the hip bone.
The rate of performing work; power. A function of energy output per unit
An exercise session in which the intensity and
duration of exercise are consciously alternated between harder and easier
work. Often used to improve aerobic capacity and/or anaerobic endurance in
exercisers who already have a base of endurance training.
A muscle contraction against a resistance that
moves at a consistent velocity, so that the maximum force of which the
muscle is capable throughout the range of motion to be applied.
Muscle action in which the muscle attempts to
contract against a fixed limit. This is also sometimes called
"isometric contraction," although there is not appreciable
shortening of the muscle.
A muscle contraction against a constant resistance, as in lifting a
The end product of the metabolism of glucose for
the anaerobic production of energy.
The fibrous, connective tissue that connects
bone to bone, or bone to cartilage, to hold together and support joints.
Pertaining to the lower back, defined by the
five lumbar vertebrae, just above the sacrum.
MAXIMAL HEART RATE
The highest heart rate of which an individual is
capable. A broad rule of thumb for estimating maximal heart rate is 220
(beats per minute) minus the personís age.
The total of all the chemical and physical processes by which the body
builds and maintains itself and by which it breaks down its substances for
the production of energy.
Food and its specific elements and compounds
that can be used by the body to build and maintain itself and to produce
The processes involved in taking in and using food substances.
Excessive accumulation of body fat.
ONE REPETITION MAXIMUM, 1 RM
The maximum resistance with which a person can
execute one repetition of an exercise movement. See repetition.
Specific muscles that act together at the same
joint to produce a movement.
Subjecting a part of the body to efforts greater
than it is accustomed to, in order to elicit a training response.
Increases may be in intensity or duration.
Excessive repeated exertion or shock which
results in injuries such as stress fractures of bones or inflammation of
muscles and tendons.
The oxygen required to restore the capacity for
anaerobic work after an effort has used those reserves. Measured by the
extra oxygen that is consumed during the recovery from the work.
PEAK HEART RATE
The highest heart rate reached during a work
A program of regular, sustained exercise to increase or maintain
levels of strength, flexibility, aerobic capacity and body composition
consistent with health, fitness or athletic objectives.
The physiological contribution to wellness
through exercise and nutrition behaviors that maintain high aerobic
capacity, balance body composition and adequate strength and flexibility
to minimize risk of chronic health problems and to enhance the enjoyment
A type of exercise that suddenly preloads and forces the stretching of a
muscle an instant prior to its concentric action.
See proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation
Work performed per unit of time. Measured by the formula: work equal force
times distance divided by time. A combination of strength and speed.
The muscle or muscle group that is causing the movement around a joint.
PROGRESSIVE RESISTANCE EXERCISE
Exercise in which the amount of resistance is
increased to further stress the muscle after it has become accustomed to
handling a lesser resistance.
Assuming a face-down position. Of the hand, turning the palm backward or
downward. O the foot, lowering the inner side of the foot so as to flatten
the arch. The opposite of supination.
PROPRIOCEPTIVE NEUROMUSCULAR FACILITATION,
Muscle stretches that use the proprioceptors
(muscle spindles) to send inhibiting messages to the muscle that is to be
A muscle group at the front of the thigh
connected to a common tendon that surrounds the kneecap and attaches to
the tibia (lower leg bone). The individual muscles are the rectus femoris,
vastus intermedius, vastus lateralis and vastus medialis. Acts to extend
the lower leg.
The pulse at the wrist.
An individual completed exercise movement.
Repetitions are usually done in multiples.
The force which a muscle is required to work
Exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide between
the atmosphere and the cells of the body.
A group of repetitions of an exercise movement
done consecutively, without rest, until a given number, or momentary
exhaustion, is reached.
Pain in the front of the lower leg from inflammation of muscle and tendon
tissue caused by overuse.
Muscle fiber type that contracts slowly and is
used most in moderate-intensity, endurance exercises, such as distance
The principle that the body adapts very
specifically to the training stimuli it is required to deal with. The body
will perform best at the specific speed, type of contraction, muscle-group
usage and energy source usage it has become accustomed to in training.
An effort to reduce fat at one location on the body by concentrating
exercise, manipulation, wraps, ect. on that location.
A stretching or tearing of ligaments.
See isometric action.
A stretching or tearing of a musculotendinous unit.
The amount of muscular force that can be
The general physical and psychological response
of an individual to any real or perceived adverse stimulus, internal or
external, that tends to disturb the individual's homeostasis. Stress that
is excessive or reacted to inappropriately, may cause disorders.
Lengthening a muscle to its maximum extension;
moving a joint to the limits of extension.
Less than maximum. Sub maximal exercise requires less than ones
maximum oxygen uptake, heart rate or anaerobic power.
Assuming a horizontal position facing upward. In
the case of the hand, it also means turning the palm to face forward. The
opposite of pronation.
TARGET HEART RATE (THR)
The heart rate at which one aims to exercise.
The fibrous connective tissue that connects muscle to bone.
Inflammation of a tendon.
The sex hormone that predominates in the male, is responsible for the
development of male secondary sex characteristics and is involved in the
hypertrophy of muscle.
See target heart rate.
A gradual increase in the intensity of exercise
to allow physiological processes to prepare for greater energy outputs.
Force times distance. Measured in foot-pounds and similar units.
A complete exercise session, ideally consisting of warm-up, intense
aerobic and/or strength exercises, and cool down.