Principle of Overload
The principle of overload states that a greater than normal
stress or load on the body is required for training adaptation to take
place. The body will adapt to this stimulus. Once the body has adapted
then a different stimulus is required to continue the change.
order for a muscle (including the heart) to increase strength, it must
be gradually stressed by working against a load greater than it is used
to. To increase endurance, muscles must work for a longer period
of time than they are used to. If this stress is removed or decreased
there will be a decrease in that particular component of fitness. A
normal amount of exercise will maintain the current fitness level.
Principle of Specificity
Related to the principle of adaptation is the principle of
specificity. Because the body will adapt in a highly specific way to the
training it receives, a strong athletic foundation is needed before
specific training methods will work optimally. The
Specificity Principle simply states that for these reasons, training
must go from highly general training to highly specific training.
For example, if you are a sprinter, you may start out with easy running
and general strength training before moving on to explosive training in
the way of plyometrics or sprinting out of the blocks. If you try to do
explosive, high intensity training too soon, you will run the risk of
such training being ineffective and possibly resulting in injury.
principle of Specificity also implies that to become better at a
particular exercise or skill, you must perform that exercise or skill.
To be a good cyclist, you must cycle. The point to take away is that a
runner should train by running and a swimmer should train by
the principle of Cross training
The term cross training refers to a training routine that
involves several different forms of exercise. While it is quite
necessary for an athlete to train specifically for their sport if they
want to excel, for most sports enthusiasts, cross-training is a
beneficial training method for maintaining a high level of overall
fitness. For example, you may use both biking and swimming each week to
improve your overall aerobic capacity, build overall muscle strength and
reduce the chance of an overuse injury. Cross-training limits the stress
that occurs on a specific muscle group because different activities use
muscles in slightly different ways.
Benefits of Cross Training
- Reduces exercise boredom
- Allows you to be flexible about you training needs and plans (if
the pool is closed, you can go for a run instead).
- Produces a higher level of all around conditioning
- Conditions the entire body, not just specific muscle groups
- Reduces the risk of injury
- Work some muscles while others rest and recover
- Can continue to train while injured
- Improves your skill, agility and balance
and discuss all Safety rules that need to be followed in the weight room
Universal weight machine precautions
- Never have a partner change the pin setting for
- Be sure the weight pin is inserted all the way.
- Never slam the plates down on the weight machine.
- Keep fingers & toes away from the machine
when someone is working.
the proper unloading of the bars and weight trees
- You should take the weights off the bar by
alternating from one side to the other.
- Never take all the weights off the same side of
the bar at the same time.
- Do not take all of the weights off the same side
of the weight tree.
the proper spotting techniques in all free lifting exercises
- The spotter must always be in a location were
they can grab the bar at any given time, or assist the lifter with
the bar if needed.
- Be sure that you spot to
- Pay attention to the person you are spotting
at all times.
- Be prepared to help the person being spotted
- Ask the person being spotted if they would
like you to put your hands on the bar for a lift-off to start
- Before the lift-off, ask the person being
spotted how many reps they are going to attempt.
- Make sure that you can handle the weight that
you are spotting. If you don't think you can handle the
weight, seek the help of another person.
- Provide only the effort that the person
requires from you. Don't grab the bar while the person
is lifting. Help them when they stall out or fail.
- Offer encouragement to the person lifting the
- Commutate with the lifter before the lift-off
and at the end of the reps.
Static stretching involves moving into a stretch
position and then holding that position. That is, you stretch
the muscle to the farthest point and hold the
stretch for a length of time between 10 to 20 seconds in
length, relax the muscle being stretched, and then repeat the
stretch again for another 10 to 20 seconds. Often you will
find that the second stretch will result in a further
range/length of motion, than the initial/first attempt to
stretch that muscle.
- Dynamic stretching, "involves moving parts of your body and gradually
increasing reach, speed of movement, or both." Do not confuse
dynamic stretching with ballistic stretching! Dynamic stretching
consists of controlled leg and arm swings that take you (gently!) to
the limits of your range of motion. Ballistic stretches involve
trying to force a part of the body beyond its range of motion. In
dynamic stretches, there are no bounces or "jerky" movements. An
example of dynamic stretching would be slow, controlled leg swings,
arm swings, or torso twists.
- Dynamic stretching improves
dynamic flexibility and is quite useful as part of your warm-up for
an active or aerobic workout (such as a dance or martial-arts
- Ballistic stretching uses the momentum of a moving body or a
limb in an attempt to force it beyond its normal range of
motion. This is stretching, or "warming up", by
bouncing into (or out of) a stretched position, using the
stretched muscles as a spring which pulls you out of the
stretched position. You must warm-up the muscle being
stretched before engaging in this type of stretching program.
Not warming-up the muscle properly
before executing this stretching technique could result in a
torn or pulled muscle.
- PNF stretching is currently the fastest and most effective
way known to increase static-passive flexibility.
- PNF is an acronym for proprioceptive neuromuscular
facilitation. It is not really a type of stretching but is
a technique of combining passive stretching (see section
Passive Stretching) and isometric stretching (see section
Isometric Stretching) in order to achieve maximum static
- PNF refers to any of several
relaxation stretching techniques in which a muscle group
is passively stretched, then contracts isometrically against
resistance while in the stretched position, and then is
passively stretched again through the resulting increased range
- PNF stretching usually employs the use of a partner to
provide resistance against the isometric contraction and then
later to passively take the joint through its increased range of
motion. It may be performed, however, without a partner,
although it is usually more effective with a partner's
the proper range of motion.
of motion in
Full extension to the lock-out, full contraction until the muscle
Do Not Do 1/4 or 1/2 motions.
These partial motions only work a small part of the muscle that is
the proper lifting rhythm.
Lifting rhythm is an important part of lifting technique. The lifting rhythm
should be 4 counts with gravity and 2 counts against gravity. Another way to do
this is any time the bar or weight is going down towards the floor, the count
should be 4 and any time the bar or weight is going up to the ceiling, the count
should be 2. The reason for this is to keep the lifter from letting gravity do
the work for them and to keep the lifter from hurting themselves.
- 4 counts with gravity (down or towards the body).
- 2 counts against gravity (up or away from body).
the proper breathing patterns.
Breathing patterns are another important part of the lifting technique. The
breathing pattern should be inhale when the bar or weight is coming towards your
body and exhale whenever the bar or weight is going away from your body. If the
bar is going up and down the pattern would be inhale as the bar or weight is
going down and exhale when the bar or weight is going up.
The importance of
proper breathing is to keep the lifter from blacking out or fainting. The lifter
should hold his/her breath only at certain points in the lift. Do
not hold your breath long because the pressure of holding
you breath will cause blood vessels to build up and stop the blood flow to the
brain. When the blood flow to the brain has been cut off you faint or blackout.
Neither of these is good when a lifter has a weight in his/her hands.
- Inhale whenever the bar or weight is coming towards
you or downwards.
- Exhale whenever the bar or weight is going away
from you or upwards.
terms & definitions
the definitions of Sets, Reps, Volume and Intensity.
- A group of repetitions
of an exercise movement done consecutively, without rest, until a given
number, or momentary exhaustion is reached. Sets are usually between 1
Repetition - An individual
completed exercise movement.
Receptions are usually done in multiples from
2 to 100.
1 Repetition Maximum
(1 RM) -The maximum resistance with which a person can execute on any
given exercise movement. HOW MUCH WEIGHT CAN THEY LIFT 1 TIME!
Volume - The total number of
repetitions completed on one exercise.
Example: 3 x 10 routine has a total volume of 30 repetitions.
Intensity - The amount of
weight chosen for the resistance of that exercise.
- The intensity is chosen as a percentage of the 1RM.
Example: If the 1 RM of a particular exercise is 200 lb and the
intensity (resistance) that is chosen is 60%, then the correct
weight selection would be 120 lbs.
- One partner will lift while one partner is
spotting and resting.
- Partner lifting is good for both lifters because
it helps with the following;
- Safety - Spotting.
- Rest interval is good and effective.
- It eases the congestion in the Weight Room.
the importance of rest and recuperation. Active rest/Passive rest.
of the muscle that were exercised, worked, or fatigued.
Active rest - Any
non-lifting activity that increases blood flow to the muscle tissues
- 48 hours of rest is necessary for full recovery
Example: Slow jogging, fast pace walking, shooting basketball,
playing soccer, etc...
Passive rest - Total
Examples: Sleeping, watching TV, playing chess.
the importance of rest and recuperation.
Rest between sets
- Between sets the lifter needs to allow a certain
amount of time for muscular rest. The length of the in-between
rest will be different for each type of lifting program. The
following rest intervals are suggested for the following workout
- Endurance rest interval is .30 to 1 minute
- Strength rest interval is 1 to 2 minutes (medium.)
- Power rest interval is 2 to 3 minutes (long)
the importance of lifting warm-up sets
and warm-down sets
Warm up activity
Proper warm up of the body is very important. To achieve this the lifter
should stretch out and if possible do some type of running or jump rope routine.
The warm up should last about 5 to 10 minutes in length. The stretching routine
should be for all body parts, upper, lower, trunk, neck and feet. The type of
stretching program that we do is call static stretching. Static means that there
is no bouncing or quick movement. All stretching movements are slow and they are
held for at least 10 to 15 seconds. All static stretching movement are started
from a relaxed position and then the muscles is stretched to the point of pain
and held for 10 counts. This is one of the better ways of stretching out.
- A light warm-up set should be completed before any heavy
set is attempted. This warm-up set will increase the quality of the heavier
lifts and reduce the potential for injury
- A light warm-down set should be completed to eliminate some
of the lactic acid that is built up in the muscle tissue from the workout. The
warm-down set will help reduce soreness
Warm up routines
Jump rope for 5 minutes
Jog for 5 minutes
Stationary bike for 5 minutes
how to use the percentile chart.
The percentile chart will show the lifter the amount
of weight they should use for their workout, based on their 1 RM
This is the intensity level
The percentile chart has automatically rounded off the percentile to
the nearest 5 pound increment.
Click on this link to download a percentile chart
the difference between Core lifts and Auxiliary lifts.
Core lifts - any lift that uses the major muscle groups or
a lift that uses multi-jointed effort during the lift. Usually a large group of
muscles are at work
Examples: Bench press, Squats, Power cleans, Push
Auxiliary lifts - any minor muscle group. Usually a
small group or individual muscles.
Example: Arm curls, Triceps extensions, Leg curls,
muscle grouping of exercises.
Exercises can be completed by muscle groups.
Lifting exercises are completed within a certain
muscle group before going on to the next group.
The common grouping of muscles are as follows:
- Chest / Back - Bench press, Incline press,
Decline press, Lat.. pulls, Dumbbell press, Flies, Pec. deck.
- Arms - Arm curls, Triceps extensions, Dips,
Wrist roller, Wrist curls, Shoulder press, Seated Military
press, Multiple dumbbell exercise, etc...
- Legs - Squats, Leg press, Leg Curls, Leg
extensions, Ram squats, Toe raises, Weighted Hip flexor,
part concept of lifting
- For every Front body part exercise, you should do
a back body part exercise.
Arm - Bicep lift, then Triceps lift.
Leg - Quad exercise, then Hamstring exercise
Chest - Bench press (Chest front), Lat Pulls (Back)
- Each lifting day should include;
- (2) Arm exercises (Front/Back)
- (2) Leg exercises (Front/Back)
- (2) Chest exercises (Front/Back)
Another approach to body part lifting would be
- Monday -All Chest exercises
- Wednesday - All Arm exercises
- Friday - All leg exercises
the correct lifting techniques on all weighted and non-weighted exercises in the weight room
Lifting technique is very important to all types of lifters. However, it is
the most important to the beginning lifter. The beginning lifter must
concentrate on his/her lifting technique first . This will allow the muscles to
develop properly and muscle will get stronger throughout its full length. Good
lifting technique will help the beginning lifter to quickly gain strength. Poor
lifting technique will hurt the beginning lifter and cause problems with muscle
growth and body alignment. Never neglect the importance of proper lifting
- Live demonstrations and/or video tape instruction
are used to teach this part of the class
- A skill test will be taught on the Bench Press
and Parallel Squats. A check list is given to the students to help
them practice for the skill test.
technique & the Beginning lifter.
Lifting technique is very important to all types of
lifters. However, it is the most important to the beginning lifter. The
beginning lifter must concentrate on his/her lifting technique first.
This will allow the muscles to develop properly and
muscle will get stronger throughout its full length.
Good lifting technique will help the beginning lifter
to quickly gain strength. Poor lifting technique will hurt the beginning
lifter and cause problems with muscle growth and body alignment.
Never neglect the importance of proper lifting
Box jumps, Depth jumps, Hurdle hops, Dot drill,
Bounding, Skipping, Leaping, Hopping
Various Medicine ball drills, with various weighted
Benefits of Cardio respiratory Exercise.)
Jogging - Slow jog, about 2:00/2:30 minutes per lap
Walking - Power walking. About 3:30/4:00
minutes per lap (400 meters)
Jump rope routines - Examples: Cross-over, Double
under, Backward turns, Backward cross-over, etc...
Aerobic dances and exercises - Examples: Country
line dance, Tae bo, Step
Circuit training is a type of endurance lifting program that trains the person
to lift quickly with vary little rest. In the circuit lifting program the lifter
will set up several lifting stations and then do the endurance lifting program
moving quickly from one exercise to another, with very little rest. The lifting
cycle would be as follows: lift for 30 seconds, rest for 30 seconds, lift for 30
seconds, rest for 30 second, etc.... The lifter will continue this cycle for at
least 20 minutes in length. It teaches the muscles to work hard with little
rest. The key to this program is choosing the correct weight selection so that
the lifter will complete at least 10 repetition in each exercise for each 30
second lifting cycle. A light weight selection is use mostly for this program.
Also, this program will increase your cardiovascular endurance level, if you
Portable Fitness Stations
Circuit training is a series of exercise stations, set up to exercise
various body parts at a quick, high repetition pace, during a short time
interval and with a short rest interval.
The exercise stations can be weighted (usually in a weight room) or
non-weighted (gymnasium). In a gymnasium, the exercise stations would
normally be stations were the student is working against their own body
weight and gravity. Additionally this would be a good place to teach
Plyometric exercises, Stability ball exercises, Fitness Testing exercise
stations, Medicine Ball exercises, Flexibility stations, Balancing stations,
Agility stations, and possibly Juggling stations (for hand-eye
coordination). Each exercise station should have a name and a
To begin the circuit, the
students would start at any numbered station, they then will exercise for a
certain timed interval, then rest/spot their partner, then rotate to the
next numbered station, then exercise again at a new exercise station.
The time interval at each exercise
station can vary and the intensity of the exercise can be adjusted according
to the grade level and/or experience level of the student.
The most common exercise interval and
rest interval used for circuit training is 30 seconds.
With the use of portable fitness equipment from
Performbetter.com, you can set up a great fitness station/circuit training
session in any open space in your facility.
Here are some portable fitness exercises that I recommend for you to consider
buying to set up an awesome core strength fitness circuit;
6" mini hurdles
12" mini hurdles
15' ABC Agility Ladders
4 lb First Place Elite Med Balls - Red/Gray
6 lb First Place Elite Med Balls - Yellow/Gray
PB Disc Pillows (Stability Pillows)
30' Training Ropes (1.5" & 2")
40' Training Ropes (1.5" & 2")
Light Mini Bands - Yellow
Medium Mini Bands - Green
Heavy Mini Bands - Blue
Bosu Sport 55 Balance Trainers
45cm Stability Balls
55cm Stability Balls
65cm Stability Balls